A Habit is a Hard Thing to Break

Submitted by Michael France, NATA Director of Safety and Training

I was browsing through news headlines the other day and this one caught my eye:

Unattended Helicopter Left Running Kills Pilot

According to the story, the pilot exited the aircraft with the engine running and rotors turning to perform a “fluid check.” The helicopter became airborne, crashed and the pilot was struck and killed by the rotors. A terrible situation and my thoughts go out to the pilot’s family and friends.

It seems far too often that we are faced with incidents and accidents where our first reaction is “what were they thinking!” Too many times the answer is, someone was looking for a short-cut, a way to save a bit of time in a busy schedule (please note I am not saying that this was the case in the incident above, the fact is, I don’t know the facts of that case). We humans are always looking for more efficient ways to accomplish tasks, both consciously and unconsciously and too frequently if a situation seems to offer reasonable risk, we deviate from the way “it should be done” and take a shortcut. Have you ever been late for work and figured the risk was low enough so you drove a few miles per hour over the speed limit (or a few MPH over the amount you usually exceed the speed limit!)? How, in a general aviation ground handling environment do we battle this human tendency?

The truth is, like many risks, we can likely never completely eliminate it. What we can do is help use another human trait to our advantage, the habit. It turns out, that if we do something a certain way enough times we will experience negative feelings if we try to accomplish the same thing in a different way. Ever changed part of your daily routine and thought to yourself “well this just doesn’t feel right?” Those negative feelings can be used to help prevent your team from taking shortcuts, especially the ones we sometimes take unconsciously! If we establish a strong habit on the way a specific task is to be accomplished, the moment we begin to vary from that routine, intentionally or unintentionally, our minds bring that deviation to our attention through negative feelings.  Now, this doesn’t mean we will automatically make the right decision to reject the shortcut and stick to procedure, but it is another tool to help tilt the scale in that direction. This idea of creating a strong habit in the way we do things is part of the reason why we establish standard procedures. We make an informed decision based upon a sound risk analysis on how we want a task completed, and then we practice it over and over until it becomes habit.

To help in this process here are two important tips:

  • Involve your team in the standard setting process! They may have points to consider that may not have ever occurred to you. Also, people are far more likely to buy into whatever decision you make on how a task should be completed if they feel their thoughts were heard and considered.
  • Take the time to catch your team doing it right! It is easy to point out when we see someone make a mistake and vary from procedure, but I challenge you to find times where you can call your team members out for doing something the right way, especially in challenging conditions. Positive reinforcement can help cement a habit far faster than negative.

When you have a few moments, check out our Operational Best Practices, developed by the NATA Safety 1st Committee. They can be a great tool in helping to build your own standardized operational procedures.

Visit or return to NATA website: http://www.nata.aero

Misfueling Prevention

A misfueling is when an aircraft receives the incorrect type, grade or amount of fuel. NATA Safety 1st committee member, Bill Moody, from AirBP, contributes the following to help FBOs and pilots prevent aircraft misfueling.

“Everything was fine during our take-off…”

No Fair Warning: If an Avgas powered aircraft is inadvertently refueled with Jet Fuel, there can be sufficient Avgas remaining in the aircraft’s fuel lines and carburetors to enable the aircraft to taxi and even take off. When the Jet Fuel reaches the engine, often at a critical time during take-off, the engine can fail and cause a forced landing or worse – the aircraft may crash.

A similar situation can occur if Avgas is put onto an aircraft which should have been refueled with Jet Fuel. (Fortunately, the consequences of this are usually less serious).

The wrong fuel. The wrong choice.

Avgas and Jet-A Don’t Mix: Every year around the world a number of aircraft are refueled with the incorrect grade of fuel. Fortunately, this error is usually detected before the aircraft takes off but, sadly, this is not always the case. We continue to see reports of incidents and even aircraft crashes resulting from misfueling. You can reinforce refueling procedures and line service training and help to ensure that your aircraft is NEVER misfueled by taking the following actions:

  • Trust But Verify
    • Teamwork – Verbal/Visual Verification
      • The simplest and most effective way to help prevent a Misfueling is for you to verbally and visually confirm the required fuel grade with the line service person before fueling your aircraft.
      • Verbally verify the grade of fuel you require with the Line Service professional and visually check the fuel grade markings on the refueling vehicle or dispenser BEFORE fueling your aircraft.
  •  No Decal – No Fuel
    • Fuel Grade Labels
      • Most aircraft are placarded for fuel type at the fueling port. Fueling staff should be trained to check for those placards and deliver only the type and grade of fuel specified on those placards. We should encourage everyone to fit fuel grade and type placards to the over-wing refueling ports of aircraft.
  • Look Before You Sign
    • Signed Fuel Order Forms
      • Many FBOs now require aircraft service requests be completed and signed by the pilot for all aircraft fuel services. This is an effective way for the pilot to confirm the aircraft identification, fuel grade required by their aircraft, fuel quantity, and other important service details before line service personnel begin to service the aircraft. We should encourage pilots to adopt this policy for all over-wing fuelings.
  • Are you Nozzle Savvy?
    • Selective Fuel Orifice
      • Selective Fuel Nozzle Spouts and Aircraft Fuel Tank Restrictor Plates: Do you know which nozzle should be used on your aircraft, and why? All Avgas powered aircraft with over-wing fueling ports should have an opening smaller than 2”. Low cost restrictor plates are available for larger openings.
      • Avgas Nozzle – 1” spout
      • Jet Fuel Nozzle (J-Spout) – 2 ½” oval spout. The intent is that the 2 ½” J- spout for Jet Fuel will not fit into the tank opening on an avgas powered aircraft fitted with the restrictor plate.
      • THE BAD GUY! Jet Fuel Nozzle (Straight Spout) – 1 ½” spout. Be on the lookout for Jet Fuel nozzles fitted with this spout. It will fit into an avgas aircraft even with the restrictor plate. These should not be installed on Jet Fuel nozzles!

ALWAYS MAKE SURE.

For more information or to complete the FREE Safety 1st General Aviation Misfueling Prevention Program by visiting: www.preventmisfueling.com.